• Absolute displacement generator. Commercial establishment, generally large-scale, which attracts buyers.
  • Ambiance. It is a material and moral atmosphere that surrounds a place, a person to create a setting.
  • Ansoff matrix. Classification model of different growth strategies.
  • Anti urbanization. It is a demographic and social process that describes urban exile to rural areas.
  • Attraction pole. Expression of a commercial offer superior to the local demand. Surplus business exists only to satisfy the needs of a clientele from a broader area than that of the local area.
  • Available income. It is the income that remains after deducting the personal income tax.




  • Beggar button. It is the name given to a street crosswalk button for pedestrians who have to beg their right of way.
  • Bistronomy. Word suitcase, including bistro and gastronomy. A restaurant of this type attracts a varied and relaxed clientele.
  • Bleisure. Word suitcase consisting of business and pleasure. It is a thin line between business travel and pleasure travel.
  • Bonzaï commercial. It is a commercial function that refuses to grow, despite market opportunities.
  • Business challenge. What is at stake is what a problem or trend is as changes (for its target audience and not for the problem or pattern), whether positive (opportunities) or negative (threats). We can distinguish issues of market maintenance, business development, economic scarcity, urban sprawl, and, for example.
  • Business Development Charter. Management instrument of the commercial function in the territory of a municipality.
  • Business hierarchy. Categorization of the commercial zones according to their service or their role.
  • Business opportunity. The opportunity is a future development that will enhance the current business situation.
  • Business vision. It is a concrete manifestation of the future of the urban commercial framework.




  • Cannibalism. It is the loss of sales of current products suffered by a company due to the introduction of new products that are partial or complete substitutes.
  • Cargo bike. A rugged version of the two-wheeled bicycle that can carry people and goods.
  • Category. The term lends itself to two distinct uses. The category can refer to a group of products of the same family; for example, dairy products, cheeses, and yogurts. The term can also mean a category of businesses operating in the same sector of activity; for example, full-service restaurants are a category of dining establishments.
  • Chain of shops. It is the name given to several establishments under a single property that benefits from the same central management and supply system.
  • Charter for terraces. A document that sets out the administrative and technical rules governing the development of open terraces on the public domain.
  • City with chimney. The term symbolizes the industrial towns of yesteryear.
  • Clearing center. Merchandise flow shop, liquidator, cheap sale store, cheap chain.
  • Club store. Business concept oriented towards price-sensitive consumers and who must become members to enjoy the products. Costco is the most convincing example.
  • Commercial arbitration. Risk management process emanating from the evolution of urban dynamics.
  • Commercial area of ​​proximity. A business space with 50,000 square feet of essential or emergency products (4645.15 sqm). We find this business concept usually in a residential area, and its service is often half a kilometer in urban areas.
  • Commercial autonomy. Benefit from a commercial offer satisfying the basic needs of a population.
  • Commercial complementarity. Type of establishment whose product offering enriches the offer of other nearby businesses.
  • Commercial decline. A generalized reduction in the commercial activity of a business area. Several indicators can signal it: disinvestment, rise in the vacancy rate, erosion of the retail mix, the decline in quality of supply, and others.
  • Commercial density. It is expressed in particular by a concentration of commercial enterprises, by a floor occupancy ratio higher than 25%, by the occupation on the floors of shops or services or other urban functions.
  • Commercial dependence. The fact that citizens must move to neighbor municipalities to consume essential goods and services.
  • Commercial facade. It is the physical expression of the outside of the trade, including, showcase, display, signboard, illumination, and building materials.
  • Commercial frame. Mesh, a grid of the commercial function in a public entity.
  • Commercial functionalism. It is the character of a business that lives only by its management principles and not by the expectations of its customers.
    Food fair. It is a business area that includes food shops arranged around common places to eat and usually found in major shopping centers and commercial galleries, mainly located under office buildings.
    Commercial force. A salesforce is a valuable resource, skill, or asset perceived positively by customers. Strengths are in the same categories as commercial weaknesses.
  • Commercial gentrification. Modification of the commercial vocation of a place of business by a commercial category of more upmarket.
  • Commercial granularity. It is the observation of a break in the retail network where businesses do not form an uninterrupted continuity. The higher the breakage, the more durable the commercial granularity, and the less attractive, is the business space.
  • Commercial harmony. It is the commercial state of a set of businesses whose components are invariably linked to the market to serve.
  • Commercial identity. The perception that a commercial offer of a zone wishes to convey to its customers.
  • Commercial image. Perception of consumers about a trade, a commercial zone.
  • Commercial leakage of proximity. It is the value of the neighborhood commercial demand that is not filled by the local commercial offer.
  • Commercial leakage. It is the value of consumer demand for a product or set of products that is greater than the local commercial supply. It results in the consumer moving out of the territory to satisfy his needs.
  • Commercial mix. It is a term that describes the variety of business establishments in a business district.
  • Commercial moth. Also called nibbling, it is a formula representing the commercial sprawl, the establishment of buildings scattered in a non-urban landscape: city entrance, the as well as the contour of water bodies, highway, and others.
  • Commercial nibbling. Also called sprawl, it is a formula representing the commercial sprawl, i.e., the establishment of buildings scattered in a non-urban landscape: city entrance, the contour of water bodies, highway, and others.
  • Commercial offer. It is the macroeconomic assessment of the value of retail sales in a given region.
  • Commercial perch. Building located in a silo on a shopping center lot to benefit from the visibility and accessibility of the place, commonly known as PAD in English.
  • Commercial programming. Process of identifying the types of businesses that have to mix the mix of a business space.
  • Commercial recruitment Service. An organization whose function is to improve the business mix of business units in a given territory. Services may include maintaining a business data registry, analyzing business opportunities, assisting commercial contractors, commercial recruiting, and conducting specialized studies.
  • Commercial recruitment. Process of finding new businesses to improve the mix of business of a place.
  • Commercial request. It is the expression of the value of consumer products that a household spends in a given territory. The demand for an area represents the summation of these expenses.
  • Commercial revitalization. It is a process of relaunching the commercial activity of a business area that has reached the stage of decline, based on proven market potential and which is endorsed by project stakeholders.
  • Commercial scripting. Scenario definition process with various business orientations for the same business space.
  • Commercial sensitivity study. It is a study that aims to measure the effects of the establishment of a big box store on the existent commercial and urban components.
  • Commercial set. Business space defined by convenience and used for the analysis of the urban commercial function. A regional shopping center, a local center, or a motorway center are all commercial complexes of a municipality.
  • Commercial spread. Low-density urban development, diffuse, without an overall plan and which may extend beyond the boundaries of the urbanization perimeter.
  • Commercial threat. The threat consists of the potential to affect a given situation negatively. For example, overly permissive commercial regulations may favor the attraction of perceived marginal establishments that would adversely affect the local atmosphere. A commercial threat can be considered a risk to commercial harmony in place.
  • Commercial transfer. It is a sudden and profound change in the retail economy that leads to a shift in consumer behavior. The object of this commercial mutation becomes a new purchasing destination.
  • Commercial tribe. Grouping of businesses belonging to the same sector of activity: automobile, food, catering, clothing.
  • Commercial urbanism. A specialized branch of urban planning that is concerned with the development of commerce in urban geography.
  • Commercial vocation. Market orientation of a set of establishments that offer a similar benefit to the clientele: troubleshooting, lifestyle vocation, motorway vocation.
  • Commercial weakness. The identification of a vulnerability in a commercial territory consists of a lack of success factors. For example, parking too small for the flow of customers, a site away from the dominant business group, an image that is not complementary to the rest of businesses and others is all commercial weaknesses. There are weaknesses in five vectors: commercial vitality, identity, business purpose, physical structure, and retail mix.
  • Commercial zone. It is a zone of complimentary business space that may include businesses and services.
  • Community (trade area). Basin of clientele residing in several adjacent neighborhoods. The geographical area may extend to the boundaries for a population basin of fewer than 50,000 inhabitants. A synonym is an urban area.
  • Complete street. A complete street must meet the needs of a maximum number of users, regardless of age and ability: pedestrians, cyclists, people with reduced mobility, public transit users, motorists, truckers, emergency vehicles, and others. Physical arrangements meet the needs of everyone to ensure safe and efficient movements.
  • Consumption habits. Disposition to act systematically before an object of evaluation. The term includes the displacement model, the time of travel, and the modes of acquisition of products and services.
  • Copenhagen SUV. It is a 3-wheeled bicycle with a cargo ship in the front (for children). A quarter of families with two children own this mode of transportation. 55% of Copenhagen residents use the bicycle to get to their place of work.
  • SOC (Soil Occupancy Coefficient). The land load factor that determines the allowable building density is the ratio of the number of square meters of floor area to the number of cubic meters of permissible construction per square meter of soil.
  • Costco tourist. A person who goes to Costco for the sole purpose of tasting the food samples.
  • Counter-clockwise commuting. The trend in large urban centers to move to the suburbs to work.
  • CUBF (Land Use Code). Land classification system designed for property assessment, activity inventory, and data mining by various users. CUBF is compatible with NAICS (North American Industry Classification System). The municipality characterizes all commercial enterprises under this code.
  • Current goods. It is a type of consumer goods that the customer frequently buys, quickly and with minimal risk and effort.
  • Customer loyalty program. It is a program designed to reward the consumer for their continued use, to promote the continuity of their purchases, to encourage them to make more visits to the establishment, and to make future purchases. The reward can be in the form of discounts, points redeemable for products, or other types.




  • Daily (retail of the). It is the aggregate of commonplace goods supply; dominant businesses are cold cuts, cooking and bakery products, general food and convenience stores, catering services, pubs, and others.
  • Department store. It is an establishment that includes several product lines organized into different services.
  • Depth of range. It refers to the variety and scales of quality that comprises the categories of the offer of a trade.
  • Desert of transport. An urban area that is characterized by a high demand for transit (TC), but does not have access to quality TC. Generally, it is a metropolitan area more than 1/4 mile (0.4 km) from a bus system and 1/2 mile (0.8 km) from a commuter train stop.
  • Development plan by zone. Description of activities to meet the management objectives of the Urban Business Zone Business Park.
  • Devitalization. Significant decrease in the economic activity of a territory: reduction or cessation of investments, loss of jobs, a substantial increase in the vacancy rate, a general drop in building maintenance, the presence of abandoned buildings, and the marginalization of businesses and, customers.
  • Discount department store. It is a store that offers a wide assortment of products and sells them at lower prices than other stores.
  • Discount store. A self-service store with cheap products.
  • Discretionary income. In general, discretionary income is the result of subtracting unemployment insurance premiums, mandatory payments, and household expenditures allocated to necessities. Discretionary income then represents what everyone can save or spend as they see fit.
  • Displacement generator. Any institution or non-commercial area of ​​interest that generates visitors: hospitals, universities, public places.
  • Durable unstructured island. It is a chaotic space that becomes embedded in the urban fabric.




  • Ease (retail of). It is the establishment that facilitates purchases through the diversity of the offer, the availability or proximity of the distribution channel. Supermarkets, discount stores, frozen products, public markets are among the most important.
  • Endogenous. An endogenous commercial characteristic reflects the internal composition of a territory. For example, this municipality has large vacant lots, has a university population, and attracts tourists. These are factors specific to the area.
  • Ephemeral store. Marketing concept to open outlets for short periods. The ancestor of the idea could be the sale of Christmas trees.
  • E-reservation. Also known as Click & Collect, Check & Reserve, Click & Pick Up, Reserve & Collect, Brick & Click, is a service that allows consumers to buy online and then take possession of merchandise in a convenience store.
  • Exogenous. An exogenous characteristic is a cause outside the territory. For example, the attractiveness of large cities encourages the out-migration of young people from small rural municipalities. For a small rural township, the external cause is the attractiveness of the big city over its population.




  • Flea market. It is an indoor or outdoor space in summer, where there is a large number of stalls.
  • Food desert. No grocery store within a reasonable pedestrian radius.
  • Free market. Market by which transactions between buyers and sellers are determined only by their mutual consent.




  • General store. It is a business that sells a variety of products, including food products.
  • Gentrification of banners. This phenomenon appears after the gentrification of a neighborhood. Independent businesses develop the market, and then retail banners take advantage of an already explicit market.
  • Gentrification of infrastructure. The addition of new infrastructure and replacements to an existing network.
  • Gentrification. Process of the gentrification of a fashionable district.
  • Gray market. Branded products purchased in foreign markets or acquired from other retailers. Products may have a slight defect, be an end of line or be unsold. The products are sold at low prices by retailers not authorized by the mark.




  • Heteroscedasticity. In statistics, this represents the differences in the variance of the variables examined. It is an observation of the multitude of business concepts that emerge in a high density of business.




  • Indefensible space. A place that no one claims because of adverse situations: waste, vandalism, abandonment.
  • Infrastructure densification. Presence of several layers of infrastructure services superimposed on each other.
  • Interim control measure. It is a temporary control that allows a local community or a municipality, to restrict or govern the implementation of a new subdivision, construction or new land-use projects during the development, modification or revision of the planning tools, that is to say, the development and development plan or the urban plan.
  • Intermunicipal commercial leakage. It is a commercial leak that finds a resolution in another surrounding municipality.
  • Internet business leaks. These are purchases made by residents from establishments located outside a given territory.
  • Intramunicipal commercial leak. It is a commercial leak in the urban commercial offer.
  • Inventory terrace. Trade that spreads its merchandise outside.Commercial theme. It is a large proportion of commercial establishments grouped around a common axis: the main street shops, the antique axis, and the gallery axis.
  • Isolated trade. It is an establishment located in a place without other retail, so there is no customer sharing.




  • Leader of a commercial category. It is the status obtained by a company that dominates the business sector by its business strategy. Consumers perceive the distinction of commerce and are willing to make efforts to attend it.
  • Lifestyle commercial shopping center. Routine activities of a shopping center while offering high-end customer-oriented amenities. The architecture is neat, and the site facilitates walking on foot without interruption.
  • Lifestyle pole. Lifestyle retail banks on the presence of locomotives, mainly food, and forms the basis of the center of life, for example, bakeries, butchers, specialized food shops, and general food stores.
  • Line of desire. In urban areas, it is a path gradually eroded following the repeated passage of pedestrians, cyclists, or animals. The presence of lines of desire (across parks or vacant lots) indicates inappropriate urban development of existing crossings.
  • Local buying campaign. Sensitization of citizens to favor local businesses. This campaign needs a performance measure to be relevant.
  • Local economy. It is an economy based on the development of a local economy where the local population takes control and does not depend solely on important centers.
  • Locomotive. An important trade, major, of a shopping center. It is often this trade that acts as a trade generator for the center.
  • Logic of the private sector. It is an interpretation of the free market principle of a commercial establishment without consideration for the urban environment.




  • Make yourself walmarted! Trade that is significantly weakened by the arrival of a Walmart in the region.
  • Malls. It is usually more significant than the businesses in its class. Today, however, the large size is becoming a standard in some markets (e.g., home improvement center). The concept of the big size varies according to the type of business.
  • Market coverage. Degree by which the commercial supply satisfies the expression of the demand in a given territory.
  • Market fragmentation. It is the emergence of new market segments within an existing segment. For example, in leisure, the field of sport represents a segment, itself exposed to the bursting of many sub-segments of specialty.
  • Market saturation. State of the market for a good or service for which it does not seem possible to attract new consumers or to increase consumption and use by current consumers.
  • Market segmentation. The process of dividing a market to expose subgroups with homogeneous but heterogeneous characteristics between groups.
  • Marketing. Analysis, planning, acquisition, promotion, and control of goods sold by a merchant.
  • Megacity. A large city, with more than 10 million inhabitants, according to the UN. They are also called hyperville.
  • Megapolis. It is an urbanized area made up of several agglomerations whose periurban suburbs and suburbs stretch out to meet each other over long distances.
  • Metapolis. A vast territory around which urban, domestic, and economic lives are organized. They are distended, heterogeneous, polynuclear urban spaces that integrate the dense city and the neo-rural.
  • Metropolis. It is the principal city of a region or a country. Through its population and its economic and cultural activities, it performs organizational functions in the region it dominates. It is not necessarily a capital.
  • Mitigation measures. These are activities, practices, and procedures aimed at reducing a perceived danger or the anticipated effects of a given activity.
  • Mix products, assortment. It is a definition of the width and depth of products held by a trader
  • Mixed-Use Development. Known as MXD (Mixed-Use Development), it is three or more users generating income; these uses are physically integrated and developed by a coherent plan.
  • Municipal commercial risk. It is the set of actual or potential occurrences that can cause local vulnerabilities and can be avoided by preventive action.
  • Municipal commitment. The municipality can act on the commercial function to arbitrate the urban and commercial risks emanating from the private logic.
  • Municipal marketing. It is the art of programming the commercial function in a business zone to optimize the ambiance effect with customers. It also includes the regulations necessary to support the vocation.
  • Municipal role of development. The purpose of municipal development is to define a direct commitment to the development of the territory. The acquisition of properties, the creation of land reserves, the implementation of a particular urban planning plan, the offer of a property renovation plan for a commercial area represent as many means as the city chooses to act on its territory.
  • Municipal role of protection. The purpose of protection and maintenance aims to preserve the economic value offered by commercial functions that could be the subject of threats of all kinds (village core, downtown).
  • Municipal role of regulation. The purpose of regulation aims to regulate the activities of an economic function that could either negatively affect other services, or run towards saturation of the market, or harm the sustainable development of the territory. For example, and for the sake of harmony between business functions, one may wish to restrict the number, size, or type of business in a business area.
  • Municipal role of valorization. The valorization role is to support the development of one or more other urban functions that do not enjoy the status of “engine” in the region, but whose current base contributes to the economic diversity of the territory.
  • Municipal role. It is the municipal commitment to take charge of the management of the commercial reinforcement on its territory. There are four leading roles that the municipality can play: protection, regulation, valorization, and development.




  • NAICS. North American Industry Classification System. It is the approved general mandatory standard set by a policy committee of which Statistics Canada, the US Economic Classification Policy Committee (ECPC), and the Instituto Nacional de Estadística, Geografía e Informática (INEGI) Mexico.
  • Neighborhood (service). It is a basin of clientele a little wider than that of a proximity trade area but a little more restricted than the community trade area. Synonym: neighborhood service, a neighborhood unit consistent with the urban plan.
  • Neighborhood (trade area). It is the basin of the clientele residing in a part of the city having specific characteristics or an absolute unity. Synonym: neighborhood service.
  • Neighborhood center. A planned business area whose locomotive is a supermarket or pharmacy. The place has geographic coverage of 3,000 to 50,000 people who can travel by car within 10 minutes to get there.
  • New suburbanization. The effort to create better suburban communities.




  • Objectives of the commercial regulations. Regulations serve to support economic vitality in municipal business logic.
  • Orphan trade. Trade implanted solo and without any attachment to any other commercial function.
  • Outlet. It is a manufacturer’s store that sells discontinued, unsold products, with slight imperfections resulting from canceled orders or surplus inventory.




  • Quick sale. The term refers to business formulas offering fast service: car service, pop-up shop, street food, stalls.




  • Parasite trade. Trade does not benefit from its trade and lives thanks to the power of attraction of other more substantial businesses. Also called a commercial remora.
  • Pedestrian proximity. It is the portion of the trip made by a motorist who parked his car near the commercial destination pursued.
  • Pedestrian salsa. Pedestrian movement intended to avoid the other pedestrian in our direction who tries to do the same thing, resulting in a typical lateral dance.
  • Pedestrian-Oriented Development (POD). According to Peter Calthorpe, one of the creators of the POD, the essence of it defines an average distance of 1/4 mile between a transit stop and a commercial centrality. The POD is interested in the richness of the pedestrian route in the city. The longer the user has to travel a long distance to get to the transit system, the more the road must be enriched in his favor. The commercial function plays a leading role in the success of the venue — relevant concept for the tourist mix.
  • Positioning. It is the perception that a business projects in the minds of consumers that favor its use, and that distinguishes it from its competitors.
  • Price elasticity of demand. It is the sensitivity of demand (in units) to a price change of a product.
  • Private brand. Products manufactured by a manufacturer and sold under the name of a dealer.
  • Private pedestrian. It is the status of an individual who engages in a private pedestrian network.
  • Product life cycle. These are the stages of a product’s life cycle from conception to death: launch, growth, maturity, decline.
  • Products of everyday use. It is a frequently purchased commodity, without planning, that includes impulsive items, necessities, or emergency products.
  • Proximity (trade area). The consumer pool ranges from 300 to 500 meters.
  • Public market. It is an open market is a food market, occasional or permanent, that operates in a public space, including locally managed businesses that contribute to a goal such as revitalizing a neighborhood or improving the quality of local health.
  • Purchase by impulse. It is a product that a consumer buys without having planned it.




  • Quota. The purpose of the quota is to provide, by zone, the maximum number of places for same or similar uses (including in the same building), the minimum distance that must separate such places or the maximum floor or lot area, intended for these uses.




  • Reclassification. It is a type of urbanization that focuses on opportunities for development or redevelopment within urbanized environments.
  • Redevelopment. It is a process that aims to eliminate the urban degradation of a given place and rehabilitate this place by introducing uses (residential, commercial, service) that improve the quality of the site and promote harmony.
  • Regional (trade area). Customer pool from a region, usually an RCM.
  • Regional commercial leakage. It is a business leak that the regional commercial offer does not fill.
  • Regional shopping center. Commercial space ranging from 300,000 square feet (27,870.91 sq.m) to more than 1 million square feet (92,903.04 sq.m). There are more than 50 stores with extensive geographic coverage (at least the territory of a Regional County Municipality – MRC).
  • Regulatory prescription. These are recommendations to suggest changes to the urban regulatory framework to improve efficiency. They must be defined to serve as municipal regulations.
  • Relay village. A relay village is a municipality that can offer quality services and amenities to travelers while meeting a goal of road safety as well as local and regional development. The origin is from the French experience of the village’s stages.
  • Retail balance sheet assessment. The supply and demand balance sheet consist of an analysis of consumer spending and the commercial supply of a given territory. The results demonstrate the existence of either commercial leaks or poles of attraction in the region.
  • Retail generator. It is a commercial establishment that attracts buyers.




  • Sales per square foot (or square meter). It is a commercial performance ratio by which it is possible to estimate sales of a trade. It is also a measure of performance comparison in the retail business.
  • Secondary area of ​​clientele. It is the geographical territory identifying the origin of 15% to 25% of the customers. This clientele is outside the primary zone and is geographically more dispersed.
  • Semi-current goods. It is a type of consumer goods bought frequently but not by impulse. Risk and effort are a little more critical for the consumer than for everyday products.
  • Shared street. The concept of shared street space comes from a study commissioned by the British Department of Transport in 1963 to reduce congestion. The study proposed to quantify the environmental capacity of a road based on noise, pollution, social activity, pedestrianization, and visual aesthetics.
  • Slumification. It is the corollary of commercial gentrification where commercial marginalization is increasing, and traditional trade is becoming scarce.
  • Snooping. It describes the activity where a consumer sees a product in-store and buys it, cheaper, on the Web.
  • Specialized store. Commercial entity dedicated to a line of products or services: piano, software, non-electrical tools.
  • Specialty goods. Goods in this category are those that the customer generally compares during the selection and purchase process on bases such as convenience, quality, price, and style. Risk and effort are meaningful.
  • Specialty store. An establishment that favors a narrow but deep product range at competitive prices and dominates a commercial sector. The concept is similar to the self-service distribution trade.
  • Stroad. Expression suitcase combining street and road. It’s a hybrid road that connects a set of destinations. One is fast, wide, and straight; the other has junctions,  parking lots, cyclists, pedestrians, and zebra crossings.
  • Supra regional trade area. Customer pool from more than one region.
  • SWOT. The technique to make a synthetic diagnosis of a situation by analyzing strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats.




  • Trade area. Name given to the area of ​​origin of the clientele. Examples include:: proximity, neighborhood, community, urban, regional, and supra-regional.
  • Transit mall. It is a street, or a set of roads closed to vehicular traffic except for emergency vehicles, on which there is collective surface transport.
  • Trend. A tendency, when binding, consists of market provisions that encourage the adoption of mitigation behavior; for example, the scarcity of urban spaces to develop favors the densification of real estate.
  • Urban (trade area). Basin from a city’s clientele. Synonym: community service.




  • Urban commercial structure. All commercial establishments in a municipal territory.
  • Urban logic. All activities aimed at promoting harmony between urban functions.
  • Urban marketing. It is the field of study in urban commercial dynamics. The term also describes city-branding initiatives.
  • Urban rehabilitation. Process of requalification of buildings allowing the improvement of the uses and the economic revival of the place. Several terms can evoke similar situations: urban renewal, urban renewal, and urban regeneration.
  • Urban renewal. It is the reconstruction of an urban component on itself, it is recycling, and its reuse to more contemporary use, the purpose of which is to improve the urban fabric and the quality of life.
  • Usurper. It is a business that has the financial means to establish itself in an area where it contributes negatively to the local complementarity or the commercial mix.




  • Vancouverism. It is an urban planning and architectural technique initiated by the City of Vancouver. It is a mixed-use development, characterized by a commercial base and high residential towers to accommodate dense populations and also preserve visual breakthroughs. The mixed-use concept originates in the absence of highways in the city, forcing people to live, work, and play in the center of the city.
  • Vertical trade. A company that only sells its products, most of which do not end up in any other distribution network, such as Sony House.
  • Village core. It is a low-density living space, generally representing the heart of the village, where shops, services, and homes define the area.




  • Webrooming. Convenient to search for information on the Internet before going to buy it in a store.
  • Window shopping. (or tile washer). Consumerist strolls of customers coming to see the stores rather than buying products.
  • World city. Global City or World City means a city that performs strategic functions on a global scale; a center that organizes flows and is part of networks; a pole of command in globalization




  • Zombie trade. The precarious state of health of a business during its announcement of possible closure.